Imec Demonstrates World’s First Vertically Stacked Gate-all-Around Si Nanowire CMOS Transistors
SAN FRANCISCO - International Electron Devices Meeting 2016 (IEDM) - Dec. 6, 2016 - At this week’s IEEE IEDM conference, world-leading research and innovation hub for nano-electronics and digital technology, imec, reported for the first time the CMOS integration of vertically stacked gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowire MOSFETs. Key in the integration scheme is a dual-work-function metal gate enabling matched threshold voltages for the n- and p-type devices. Also, the impact of the new architecture on intrinsic ESD performance was studied, and an ESD protection diode is proposed. These breakthrough results advance the development of GAA nanowire MOSFETs, which promise to succeed FinFETs in future technology nodes.
GAA nanowire transistors are promising candidates to succeed FinFETs in 7nm and beyond technology nodes. They offer optimal electrostatic control, thereby enabling ultimate CMOS device scaling. In a horizontal configuration, they are a natural extension of today’s mainstream FinFET technology. In this configuration, the drive current per footprint can be maximized by vertically stacking multiple horizontal nanowires. Earlier this year, imec scientists demonstrated GAA FETs based on vertically stacked 8nm diameter Si nanowires. These devices showed excellent electrostatic control, but were fabricated for n- and p-FETs separately.
Imec now reports on the CMOS integration of vertically stacked GAA Si nanowire MOSFETs, with matched threshold voltages for n- and p-type devices*. Key in the integration scheme is the implementation of dual-work-function metal gates to set the threshold voltages of the n- and p-FETs independently. In this process step, p-type work function metal (PWFM) is deposited in the gate trenches of all devices, followed by selectively etching the PWFM down to the HfO2 from the n-FETs and subsequent deposition of the n-type work function metal. The observation of matched threshold voltages (VT,SAT = 0.35V) for nMOS and pMOS devices validates the dual-work-function metal integration scheme.
The impact of this new device architecture on the intrinsic ESD performance was investigated as well**. Two different ESD protection diodes have been proposed, i.e. a gate-structure defined diode (gated diode) and a shallow-trench isolation defined diode (STI diode). The STI diode was the better ESD protection device, showing an excellent ratio of failure current (It2) over parasitic capacitance (C). Measurements and TCAD simulations also prove that the ESD performance in GAA nanowire based diodes is maintained in comparison to bulk FinFET diodes.
“GAA nanowire transistors enable ultimate CMOS device scaling, with low degree of added complexity compared to alternative scaling scenarios,” stated Dan Mocuta, Director Logic Device and Integration at imec. The proposed integration scheme for Si GAA CMOS technology and the results on ESD protection are important achievements towards realizing these 7nm and beyond technology nodes. Future work will focus, among others, on further optimizing individual process steps, for example through the co-optimization of the junction and nanowire formation.”
Imec’s research into advanced logic scaling is performed in cooperation with imec’s key partners in its core CMOS programs including GlobalFoundries, Huawei, Intel, Micron, Qualcomm, Samsung, SK Hynix, Sony and TSMC.
*’Vertically stacked gate-all-around Si nanowire CMOS transistors with dual work function metal gates’, H. Mertens et al., IEDM 2016
**’ESD diodes in a bulk Si gate-all-around vertically stacked horizontal nanowire technology’, S.-H. Chen et al., IEDM 2016
Imec is the world-leading research and innovation hub in nano-electronics and digital technologies. The combination of our widely acclaimed leadership in microchip technology and profound software and ICT expertise is what makes us unique. By leveraging our world-class infrastructure and local and global ecosystem of partners across a multitude of industries, we create groundbreaking innovation in application domains such as healthcare, smart cities and mobility, logistics and manufacturing, and energy.
As a trusted partner for companies, start-ups and universities we bring together close to 3,500 brilliant minds from over 70 nationalities. Imec is headquartered in Leuven, Belgium and also has distributed R&D groups at a number of Flemish universities, in the Netherlands, Taiwan, USA, China, and offices in India and Japan. In 2015, imec's revenue (P&L) totaled 415 million euro and of iMinds which is integrated in imec as of September 21, 2016 52 million euro. Further information on imec can be found at www.imec.be.
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Hanne Degans, Press Officer, +32 16 28 17 69 // +32 486 06 51 75 // Hanne.Degans@imec.be